20 MY COUNTRY AND MY PEOPLE poems of the North and the South during the fourth, fifth and sixth centuries, when northern China was for the first time submerged under a Tartar rule, and the cultured Chinese migrated southward. For it was a time when sentimental love lyrics flourished in the southern courts, and the southern rulers were many of them great lyric poets, while a peculiar form of love ditties, the tzityehko, developed among the people. A contrast between this sentimental poetry and the fresh, naive poetry of the North would be highly instructive. So sang the anonymous poet of the South in the popular ditties: Kill the ever-crowing cock! Shoot the early announcer of the dawn! That there might be an uninterrupted Rolling darkness till Next Year's morn! Or again: The roads are muddy and forsaken, Despite the cold I came to thee. Go and look at the footprints in snow, If thou wilt not believe me. During the Southern Sung Dynasty, we saw a peculiar de- velopment of a sentimental lyric in intricate metre, the tz'u, which invariably sang of the sad lady in her boudoir, and her tearful red candles at night and sweet-flavoured rouge and eyebrow pencils, and silk curtains and beaded window screens and painted rails and .departed springs^ and pining lovers and emaciated sweethearts. It was natural that a people given to this kind of sentimental poetry should be conquered by a northern people who had but short, naive lines of poetry, taken, as it were, direct and without embellishment from the dreary northern landscape. Down by the Chehleh river, Beneath the Yin hills, Like an inverted cup is the sky That covers the wasteland.